Climatology in Architecture

What is climatology in Architecture?
It is the study of elements of weather and climate and how they influence human comfort in outdoor, indoor, semi-outdoor and semi-indoor spaces. It is used to apply various methods in order to use these climatic elements naturally or artificially for desired comfort in a built environment.

Architects use the terms ‘Site Climate’, ‘Micro-Climate’ and ‘Macro-Climate’. Site climate is, of course, the climatic conditions of the current project site and its deviations from surrounding climate. Micro-climate is at a slightly larger scale, such as the climate of the town or city in which the site is located. Macro-climate is further at a larger scale, such as climate of a state, country, or region.

What is Climate-Balanced Architecture?
It is the duty of every Architect to design  a space that reduces the undesirable effects of the surrounding climate and utilizes the desired resources from it in every environmental setting. Such architecture is known as Climate-Balanced Architecture.
Sometimes it may not be possible to achieve a perfect balance. In such cases, Artificial means may also be used, such as air conditioning, man-made water bodies, etc.

How can we apply Climatology in a project?
The first step is to take a detailed survey of the elements in and around the given location. Prepare a detailed study of all the elements. Focus on the elements that may create problems, such as rain or snow, temperature, humidity, wind flow, etc.
Depending on the client’s requirements, evaluate the climate and weather patterns. Define your problems and your resources.
Alongside the design process, keep in mind these problems and resources. Apply the resources in your design to create natural comfort and counter the problems in a similar manner. However, if natural solutions do not counter the problems, technological solutions may be applied. It is better if natural solutions do the trick and minimum machine work is required. Also keep in mind that these solutions are only to provide comfort and/or convenience to the client. Your solution should not create a new problem for the client.
Some factors that indirectly affect the Site climate are orientation, height of the structure, soil and biology in and around the site, nearby activities (eg. Factories, busy roads, etc.), nearby buildings, etc.

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